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Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation and its largest city. With over 10 million people living and working there, it is among the worlds 20 largest cities.

Moscow was founded in 1147, when Russia was made up of a number of city states and princedoms before it was unified under a single ruler. Toward the end of the 15th century the city emerged as the capital of an empire that would eventually encompass all of present-day Russia and other lands. In 1712, Peter the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg. Soon after coming to power in 1917, the Bolsheviks moved the capital back to Moscow (1918).

The city began with the foundation of the Moscow Kremlin, the historic fortress that has traditionally housed the government; with the rest of the city eventually growing around it. Several rivers cut through Moscow the Moscow and Yauza rivers being the largest.

Moscow is serviced by a sprawling network of public transportation, including subway trains, buses, trolley buses, and trams. The climate is moderately continental,
Typical high temperatures in the warm months of July and August are around 22 C (72 F); in the winter, temperatures normally drop to approximately -12 C (10 F). Moscow is home to many architectural attractions, including 15th- to 19th-century classical architecture, as well as Stalin-era monoliths and recently constructed modern buildings.

In addition to Russians, the city has large Jewish, Tartar, Armenian, and various other ethnic communities.

Moscows contribution to the national GDP (approx. 15%) makes it Russias most developed economy and the countrys business center. The citys most profitable sectors are the food, mechanical engineering, and power industries.

Moscow mayor Yuri Luzhkov has run the city since 1992.




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