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Brown bear. Photo: Sergey Gorshkov

Russias wildlife is as varied as its geographical zones and has many different species of animals, birds, and fish. Walruses, seals, polar bears, reindeer, polar foxes, lemmings, and polar hares populate the Far North and the tundra. These areas are also home for birds, such as polar owls, ptarmigans, seagulls, and loons. Some bird species, such as geese, swans, and ducks, migrate here for the summer. 

Forest areas, especially the taiga, are home to elk, brown bears, lynxes, sables, foxes, squirrels, chipmunks, and white hares. In the forests of the Far East, one finds Ussuri tigers, black bears, yellow-throated martens, raccoon dogs, gorals, and wild boars. The bird population of the Russian forests includes wood grouse, black grouse, hazel grouse, and woodpeckers.

In the steppe and forest steppe, small rodents prevail, including field voles, gophers, jerboas, hamsters, and marmots. These territories are also the natural habitat of such birds as eagles and bustards. 

Mountain goats, roe deer, deer, wild boars, porcupines, leopards, hyenas, jackals, and bears inhabit the mountainous terrains of the Caucasus. Quails and partridges dwell here, too. 

In terms of trapping and hunting of most importance are fur-bearing animals, such as squirrels, foxes, sables, and ermines; wild ungulate animals like elks, reindeer, and wild goats; and also waterfowl like ducks and geese.

Russias seas possess extensive biological resources including fish (cod, herring, plaice, turbot, mackerel pike perch, salmon, etc.) and marine mammals. The countrys rivers and lakes are fished for salmon, sturgeon, and herring.




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