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Chapter 1. The Fundamentals of the Constitutional System

 
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Article 1

1. The Russian Federation - Russia is a democratic federative law-governed state with a republican form of government.

2. The names Russian Federation and Russia are equipollent.


Article 2

Man, his rights and freedoms shall be the supreme value. The recognition, observance and protection of human and civil rights and freedoms shall be an obligation of the State.


Article 3

1. The bearer of sovereignty and the sole source of power in the Russian Federation shall be its multinational people.

2. The people shall exercise its power directly, as well as through State government bodies and local self-government bodies.

3. The supreme direct expression of the power of the people shall be referendum and free elections.

4. Nobody may usurp power in the Russian Federation. The seizure of power or usurpation of State authority shall be prosecuted under federal law.


Article 4

1. The sovereignty of the Russian Federation shall extend to the entirety of its territory.

2. The Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws shall have supremacy on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.

3. The Russian Federation shall ensure the integrity and inviolability of its territory.


Article 5

1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

2. A republic (state) shall have its own constitution and legislation. A kray, oblast, city of federal significance, autonomous oblast and autonomous okrug shall have its own charter and legislation.

3. The federal structure of the Russian Federation shall be based on its State integrity, the unity of the system of State power, the division of matters of authority and powers between State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the equality and self-determination of peoples in the Russian Federation.

4. All constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be equal with one another in relations with federal State government bodies.


Article 6

1. Citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be acquired and terminated in accordance with federal law, and shall be one and equal, irrespective of the grounds on which it is acquired.

2. Every citizen of the Russian Federation shall enjoy all rights and freedoms on its territory and shall bear equal responsibilities as envisaged in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

3. A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be deprived of his (her) citizenship or of the right to change it.


Article 7

1. The Russian Federation shall be a social state whose policy is aimed at creating conditions ensuring a worthy life and a free development of Man.

2. In the Russian Federation the labour and health of people shall be protected, a guaranteed minimum wage shall be established, State support shall be provided for the family, maternity, fatherhood and childhood, to the disabled and to elderly citizens, the system of social services shall be developed and State pensions, allowances and other social security guarantees shall be established.


Article 8

1. In the Russian Federation the integrity of economic space, free flow of goods, services and financial resources, support of competition, and the freedom of economic activity shall be guaranteed.

2. In the Russian Federation private, State, municipal and other forms of property shall be recognized and shall be protected on an equal basis.


Article 9

1. Land and other natural resources shall be utilized and protected in the Russian Federation as the basis of the life and activity of the peoples living on the territories concerned.

2. Land and other natural resources may be subject to private, State, municipal and other forms of ownership.


Article 10

State power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised on the basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial authority. Bodies of legislative, executive and judicial authority shall be independent.


Article 11

1. State power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised by the President of the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly (the Council of Federation and the State Duma), the Government of the Russian Federation, and the courts of the Russian Federation.

2. State power in constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be exercised by bodies of State government formed by those constituent entities.

3. The division of authorities and powers among State government bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be established by this Constitution, the Federation Treaty and other treaties on the division of authorities and powers.


Article 12

Local self-government shall be recognized and guaranteed in the Russian Federation. Local self-government shall be independent within the limits of its competence. Bodies of local self-government shall not form part of the system of State government bodies.


Article 13

1. Ideological diversity shall be recognized in the Russian Federation.

2. No ideology shall be proclaimed as State ideology or as obligatory.

3. Political diversity and the multi-party system shall be recognized in the Russian Federation.

4. Public associations shall be equal before the law.

5. The establishment and activities of public associations whose goals and activities are aimed at the forcible changing of the basis of the constitutional order and at violating the integrity of the Russian Federation, at undermining its security, at creating armed units, and at instigating social, racial, national and religious strife shall be prohibited.


Article 14

1. The Russian Federation shall be a secular state. No religion may be established as the State religion or as obligatory.

2. Religious associations shall be separate from the State and shall be equal before the law.


Article 15

1. The Constitution of the Russian Federation shall have supreme legal force, direct effect and shall be applicable on the entire territory of the Russian Federation. Laws and other legal acts, which are adopted in the Russian Federation, must not contradict the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

2. State government bodies, local self-government bodies, officials, citizens and their associations shall be obliged to observe the Constitution of the Russian Federation and laws.

3. Laws must be officially published. Unpublished laws shall not have force. Any normative legal acts concerning human and civil rights, freedoms and obligations shall not have force unless they have been officially published for the information of the general public.

4. Universally recognized principles and norms of international law as well as international agreements of the Russian Federation should be an integral part of its legal system. If an international agreement of the Russian Federation establishes rules, which differ from those stipulated by law, then the rules of the international agreement shall be applied.


Article 16

1. The provisions of this Chapter of the Constitution shall constitute the fundamental principles of the constitutional order of the Russian Federation and may not be changed except in accordance with the procedure established by this Constitution.

2. No other provisions of this Constitution may conflict with the fundamental principles of the constitutional order of the Russian Federation.

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