Chapter 1. The
Fundamentals of the Constitutional System
1. The Russian Federation - Russia is a democratic federative
law-governed state with a republican form of government.
2. The names Russian Federation and Russia are equipollent.
Man, his rights and freedoms shall be the supreme value. The
recognition, observance and protection of human and civil rights and
freedoms shall be an obligation of the State.
1. The bearer of sovereignty and the sole source of power in the
Russian Federation shall be its multinational people.
2. The people shall exercise its power directly, as well as through
State government bodies and local self-government bodies.
3. The supreme direct expression of the power of the people shall be
referendum and free elections.
4. Nobody may usurp power in the Russian Federation. The seizure of
power or usurpation of State authority shall be prosecuted under
1. The sovereignty of the Russian Federation shall extend to the
entirety of its territory.
2. The Constitution of the Russian Federation and federal laws shall
have supremacy on the entire territory of the Russian Federation.
3. The Russian Federation shall ensure the integrity and
inviolability of its territory.
1. The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krays,
oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast and
autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent
entities of the Russian Federation.
2. A republic (state) shall have its own constitution and
legislation. A kray, oblast, city of federal significance,
autonomous oblast and autonomous okrug shall have its own charter
3. The federal structure of the Russian Federation shall be based on
its State integrity, the unity of the system of State power, the
division of matters of authority and powers between State government
bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of
constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the equality and
self-determination of peoples in the Russian Federation.
4. All constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be equal
with one another in relations with federal State government bodies.
1. Citizenship of the Russian Federation shall be acquired and
terminated in accordance with federal law, and shall be one and
equal, irrespective of the grounds on which it is acquired.
2. Every citizen of the Russian Federation shall enjoy all rights
and freedoms on its territory and shall bear equal responsibilities
as envisaged in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.
3. A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be deprived of his
(her) citizenship or of the right to change it.
1. The Russian Federation shall be a social state whose policy is
aimed at creating conditions ensuring a worthy life and a free
development of Man.
2. In the Russian Federation the labour and health of people shall
be protected, a guaranteed minimum wage shall be established, State
support shall be provided for the family, maternity, fatherhood and
childhood, to the disabled and to elderly citizens, the system of
social services shall be developed and State pensions, allowances
and other social security guarantees shall be established.
1. In the Russian Federation the integrity of economic space, free
flow of goods, services and financial resources, support of
competition, and the freedom of economic activity shall be
2. In the Russian Federation private, State, municipal and other
forms of property shall be recognized and shall be protected on an
1. Land and other natural resources shall be utilized and protected
in the Russian Federation as the basis of the life and activity of
the peoples living on the territories concerned.
2. Land and other natural resources may be subject to private,
State, municipal and other forms of ownership.
State power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised on the
basis of its division into legislative, executive and judicial
authority. Bodies of legislative, executive and judicial authority
shall be independent.
1. State power in the Russian Federation shall be exercised by the
President of the Russian Federation, the Federal Assembly (the
Council of Federation and the State Duma), the Government of the
Russian Federation, and the courts of the Russian Federation.
2. State power in constituent entities of the Russian Federation
shall be exercised by bodies of State government formed by those
3. The division of authorities and powers among State government
bodies of the Russian Federation and State government bodies of
constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be established
by this Constitution, the Federation Treaty and other treaties on
the division of authorities and powers.
Local self-government shall be recognized and guaranteed in the
Russian Federation. Local self-government shall be independent
within the limits of its competence. Bodies of local self-government
shall not form part of the system of State government bodies.
1. Ideological diversity shall be recognized in the Russian
2. No ideology shall be proclaimed as State ideology or as
3. Political diversity and the multi-party system shall be
recognized in the Russian Federation.
4. Public associations shall be equal before the law.
5. The establishment and activities of public associations whose
goals and activities are aimed at the forcible changing of the basis
of the constitutional order and at violating the integrity of the
Russian Federation, at undermining its security, at creating armed
units, and at instigating social, racial, national and religious
strife shall be prohibited.
1. The Russian Federation shall be a secular state. No religion may
be established as the State religion or as obligatory.
2. Religious associations shall be separate from the State and shall
be equal before the law.
1. The Constitution of the Russian Federation shall have supreme
legal force, direct effect and shall be applicable on the entire
territory of the Russian Federation. Laws and other legal acts,
which are adopted in the Russian Federation, must not contradict the
Constitution of the Russian Federation.
2. State government bodies, local self-government bodies, officials,
citizens and their associations shall be obliged to observe the
Constitution of the Russian Federation and laws.
3. Laws must be officially published. Unpublished laws shall not
have force. Any normative legal acts concerning human and civil
rights, freedoms and obligations shall not have force unless they
have been officially published for the information of the general
4. Universally recognized principles and norms of international law
as well as international agreements of the Russian Federation should
be an integral part of its legal system. If an international
agreement of the Russian Federation establishes rules, which differ
from those stipulated by law, then the rules of the international
agreement shall be applied.
1. The provisions of this Chapter of the Constitution shall
constitute the fundamental principles of the constitutional order of
the Russian Federation and may not be changed except in accordance
with the procedure established by this Constitution.
2. No other provisions of this Constitution may conflict with the
fundamental principles of the constitutional order of the Russian
Constitution of Russia