1. In the Russian Federation human and civil rights and freedoms
shall be recognized and guaranteed according to the universally
recognized principles and norms of international law and this
2. Basic human rights and freedoms shall be inalienable and shall be
enjoyed by everyone from birth.
3. The exercise of human and civil rights and freedoms must not
violate the rights and freedoms of other people.
Human and civil rights and freedoms shall have direct force. They
shall determine the meaning, content and implementation of laws, the
functioning of legislative and executive authority and of local
self-government, and shall be guaranteed by law.
1. All persons shall be equal before the law and the court.
2. The State guarantees the equality of human and civil rights and
freedoms regardless of sex, race, nationality, language, origin,
material and official status, place of residence, attitude to
religion, convictions, membership of public associations, or of
other circumstances. All forms of limitations of human rights on
social, racial, national, language or religious grounds shall be
3. Men and women shall enjoy equal rights and freedoms and equal
opportunities to exercise them.
1. Everyone shall have the right to life.
2. Capital punishment until its complete abolition may be
established by federal law as an exclusive form of punishment for
particularly grave crimes against life, and the accused shall be
granted the right to have his case examined by a court with the
participation of a jury.
1. Human dignity shall be protected by the State. Nothing may serve
as a basis for its derogation.
2. Nobody should be subjected to torture, violence, or other severe
or humiliating treatment or punishment. Nobody may be subjected to
medical, scientific or other experiments without voluntary consent.
1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom and personal
2. Arrest, detention and keeping in custody shall be permissible
only under a court order. A person may not be detained for more than
48 hours without a court order.
1. Everyone shall have the right to the inviolability of his (her)
private life, personal and family privacy, and protection of his
(her) honour and good name.
2. Everyone shall have the right to privacy of correspondence, of
telephone conversations and of postal, telegraph and other
communications. This right may be limited only on the basis of a
1. Collecting, keeping, using and disseminating information about
the private life of a person shall not be permitted without his
2. State government bodies and local self-government bodies and
their officials shall be obliged to provide everyone with access to
documents and materials directly affecting his (her) rights and
freedoms, unless otherwise envisaged by law.
The home shall be inviolable. Nobody shall have the right to enter a
dwelling place against the will of those residing therein, except in
those cases provided for by federal laws or on the basis of a court
1. Everyone shall have the right to determine and declare his (her)
nationality. Nobody shall be forced to determine and declare his
2. Everyone shall have the right to use his (her) native language
and to a free choice of the language of communication, upbringing,
education and creative work.
1. Everyone who is legally present on the territory of the Russian
Federation shall have the right to travel freely and freely to
choose the place of temporary or permanent residence.
2. Everyone may freely leave the Russian Federation. Citizens of the
Russian Federation shall have the right freely to return to the
Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of conscience and religion,
including the right to profess individually or collectively any
religion or not to profess any religion, and freely to choose,
possess and disseminate religious and other convictions and act in
accordance with them.
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed freedom of thought and speech.
2. Propaganda or agitation, which arouses social, racial, national
or religious hatred and hostility shall be prohibited. Propaganda of
social, racial, national, religious or linguistic supremacy shall
also be prohibited.
3. Nobody shall be forced to express his thoughts and convictions or
to deny them.
4. Everyone shall have the right freely to seek, receive, transmit,
produce and disseminate information by any legal means. The list of
types of information, which constitute State secrets, shall be
determined by federal law.
5. The freedom of the mass media shall be guaranteed. Censorship
shall be prohibited.
1. Everyone shall have the right of association, in cluding the
right to establish trade unions for the protection of his(her)
interests. The freedom of activity of public associations shall be
2. Nobody may be compelled to join any association or to stay there.
Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to assemble
peacefully, without weapons, hold rallies, mass meetings and
demonstrations, marches and pickets.
1. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to
participate in managing State affairs both directly and through
2. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to elect
and be elected to State government bodies and local self-government
bodies, as well as to participate in referendums.
3. Citizens who are recognized as incapable by a court, and citizens
who are kept in places of imprisonment under a court sentence, shall
not have the right to elect and be elected.
4. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall enjoy equal access to
5. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to
participate in administering justice.
Citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right to appeal in
person and make individual and collective appeals to State bodies
and local self-government bodies.
1. Everyone shall have the right to use freely his (her) abilities
and property for entrepreneurial and other economic activity not
prohibited by law.
2. Economic activity aimed at monopolization and unfair competition
shall not be permitted.
1. The right of private property shall be
protected by law.
2. Everyone shall have the right to have property and to possess,
use and dispose of it both individually and jointly with other
3. Nobody may be deprived of property except under a court order.
Forced alienation of property for State requirements may take place
only subject to prior and fair compensation.
4. The right of inheritance shall be guaranteed.
1. Citizens and their associations shall have the right to possess
land as private property.
2. Possession, utilisation and disposal of land and other natural
resources shall be exercised by the owners freely provided that this
is not detrimental to the environment and does not violate the
rights and lawful interests of other people.
3. The conditions and procedure for the use of land shall be
determined by federal law.
1. Labour shall be free. Everyone shall have the right freely to use
his (her) labour skills and to choose the type of activity and
2. Compulsory labour shall be forbidden.
3. Everyone shall have the right to work in conditions, which meet
safety and hygiene requirements, and to receive remuneration for
labour without any discrimination whatsoever and not below the
minimum wage established by federal law, as well as the right of
protection against unemployment.
4. The right of individual and collective labour disputes with the
use of the methods for their resolution, which are provided for by
federal law, including the right to strike, shall be recognized.
5. Everyone shall have the right to rest. For those working under
labour contracts the duration of work time, days of rest and public
holidays and annual paid leave established by federal law shall be
1. Maternity, childhood and family shall be protected by the State.
2. Care for children and their upbringing shall be the equal right
and duty of parents.
3. Able-bodied children over 18 years of age must take care of
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed social security for old age, in case
of illness, disability and loss of the breadwinner, for the bringing
up of children and in other cases specified by law.
2. State pensions and social benefits shall be established by law.
3. Voluntary social insurance, the creation of additional forms of
social security and charity shall be encouraged.
1. Everyone shall have the right to a home. Nobody may be
arbitrarily deprived of his (her) home.
2. State government bodies and local self-government bodies shall
promote housing construction and create conditions for exercising
the right to a home.
3. Low-income citizens and other citizens mentioned in law who are
in need of a home may receive it either free of charge or for an
affordable payment from State, municipal and other housing funds
according to the norms established by law.
1. Everyone shall have the right to health protection and medical
care. Medical care in State and municipal health institutions shall
be rendered to citizens free of charge at the expense of the
appropriate budget, insurance premiums and other proceeds.
2. In the Russian Federation federal programmes for the protection
and improvement of the health of the public shall be financed,
measures shall be taken to develop State, municipal and private
healthcare systems, and activities shall be encouraged which
contribute to the improvement of human health, the development of
physical education and sport, and ecological, sanitary and
3. The concealment by officials of facts and circumstances, which
pose a threat to the life and health of people, shall result in
liability according to federal law.
Everyone shall have the right to a favourable environment, reliable
information on the state of the environment and compensation for
damage caused to his (her) health and property by violations of
1. Everyone shall have the right to education.
2. General access and free pre-school, secondary and secondary
vocational education in State and municipal educational institutions
and at enterprises shall be guaranteed.
3. Everyone shall have the right to receive on a competitive basis
free higher education in State and municipal educational
institutions and at enterprises.
4. Basic general education shall be compulsory. Parents or guardians
shall ensure that children receive a basic general education.
5. The Russian Federation shall establish federal State educational
standards and shall support various forms of education and
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed the freedom of literary, artistic,
scientific, technical and other types of creative activity and
teaching. Intellectual property shall be protected by law.
2. Everyone shall have the right to participate in cultural life and
use cultural establishments, and the right of access to cultural
3. Everyone shall be obliged to care for the preservation of the
cultural and historical heritage, and to protect monuments of
history and culture.
1. State protection of human and civil rights and freedoms in the
Russian Federation shall be guaranteed.
2. Everyone shall have the right to protect his (her) rights and
freedoms by all means not prohibited by law.
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed protection in court of his (her)
rights and freedoms.
2. Decisions and actions (or inaction) of State government bodies,
local self-government bodies, public organisations and officials may
be appealed against in court.
3. Everyone shall have the right in accordance with international
treaties of the Russian Federation to appeal to interstate bodies
for the protection of human rights and freedoms if all available
internal means of legal protection have been exhausted.
1. Nobody may be deprived of the right to have his (her) case heard
in the court and by the judge within whose competence the case is
placed by law.
2. Any person accused of committing a crime shall have the right to
have his (her) case examined by a court with the participation of a
jury in the cases envisaged by federal law.
1. Everyone shall be guaranteed the right to qualified legal
assistance. In the cases envisaged by law, legal assistance shall be
provided free of charge.
2. Any person detained, taken into custody or accused of committing
a crime shall have the right to use the assistance of a lawyer
(counsel for the defence) from the moment of being detained, placed
in custody or accused.
1. Any person accused of committing a crime shall be considered
innocent until his (her) guilt is proven in accordance with the
by federal law and is confirmed by a court sentence which has
entered into legal force.
2. The accused shall not be obliged to prove his (her) innocence.
3. Irremovable doubts about the guilt of a person shall be
interpreted in favour of the accused.
1. Nobody may be convicted twice for one and the same crime.
2. In administering justice it shall not be permitted to use
evidence received through violating federal law.
3. Any person convicted of a crime shall have the right to appeal
against the verdict to a higher court in accordance with the
procedure established by federal law, as well as to request pardon
or mitigation of the punishment.
1. Nobody shall be obliged to testify
against him self, his (her) spouse or close relatives, the range of
whom shall be determined by federal law.
2. Federal law may establish other cases where the obligation to
give evidence may be lifted.
The rights of victims of crimes and of abuses of office shall be
protected by law. The State shall provide the victims with access to
justice and compensation for damage sustained.
Everyone shall have the right to State compensation for damage
caused by unlawful actions (inaction) of State government bodies and
1. A law, which introduces or increases liability, shall not have
2. Nobody may bear liability for an action, which was not regarded
as a crime when it was committed. If, after an offense has been
committed, the extent of liability for it is lifted or mitigated,
the new law shall be applied.
1. The enumeration in the Constitution of the Russian Federation of
the basic rights and freedoms should not be interpreted as a denial
or diminution of other universally recognized human and civil rights
2. In the Russian Federation no laws must be adopted which abolish
or diminish human and civil rights and freedoms.
3. Human and civil rights and freedoms may be limited by federal law
only to the extent necessary for the protection of the basis of the
constitutional order, morality, health, rights and lawful interests
of other people, and for ensuring the defence of the country and the
security of the State.
1. In the conditions of a state of emergency, in order to ensure the
safety of citizens and the protection of the constitutional order
and in accordance with federal constitutional law, certain
restrictions may be imposed on human rights and freedoms with an
indication of their limits and the period for which they have
2. A state of emergency on the entire territory of the Russian
Federation and in certain areas thereof may be introduced subject to
the circumstances and in accordance with the procedure stipulated by
federal constitutional law.
3. The rights and freedoms specified in Articles 20, 21, 23 (part
1), 24, 28, 34 (part 1), 40 (part 1), and 46-54 of the Constitution
of the Russian Federation might not be restricted.
Everyone shall be obliged to pay legally established taxes and
levies. Laws, which establish new taxes or deteriorate the position
of taxpayers, shall not have retroactive force.
Everyone shall have a duty to preserve nature and the environment
and to treat natural resources with care.
1. Defence of the Fatherland shall be the duty and obligation of a
citizen of the Russian Federation.
2. Citizens of the Russian Federation shall perform military service
in accordance with federal law.
3. In the event that their convictions or religious beliefs run
counter to military service and in other cases established by
federal law, citizens of the Russian Federation shall have the right
to replace it with alternative civilian service.
A citizen of the Russian Federation may exercise all of his (her)
rights and duties independently from the age of 18 years.
1. A citizen of the Russian Federation may not be deported from the
Russian Federation or extradited to another state.
2. The Russian Federation shall guarantee its citizens protection
and patronage abroad.
1. A citizen of the Russian Federation may have citizenship of a
foreign state (dual citizenship) in accordance with federal law or
an international treaty of the Russian Federation.
2. The possession of foreign citizenship by a citizen of the Russian
Federation shall not diminish his (her) rights and freedoms and
shall not release him from obligations stipulated for Russian
citizenship, unless otherwise specified by federal law or an
international treaty of the Russian Federation.
3. Foreign citizens and stateless persons shall enjoy rights and
bear obligations in the Russian Federation on a par with citizens of
the Russian Federation, except in those cases envisaged by federal
law or by an international treaty of the Russian Federation.
1. The Russian Federation shall grant political asylum to foreign
citizens and stateless persons in accordance with the universally
recognized norms of international law.
2. In the Russian Federation persons who are persecuted for their
political convictions or for actions (or inaction) not recognized as
a crime in the Russian Federation may not be extradited to other
states. The extradition of persons accused of a crime, as well as
the surrender of convicts to serve sentence in other states, shall
be carried out on the basis of federal law or an international
treaty of the Russian Federation.
The provisions of this Chapter shall constitute the fundamental
principles of the legal status of the individual in the Russian
Federation and may not be changed otherwise than in accordance with
the procedure which is established by this Constitution.