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Twentieth Century

1901 New illegal neo-Narodnik organisation, Socialist Revolutionary Party, established
1902 V. Lenin produces work on party organisation What Is to Be Done?
1903  Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party splits into Bolshevik and Menshevik wings
Left-wing liberals set up their illegal organisation, ‘Union of Liberation’
Right-wing liberals set up ‘Union of Zemstvo Constitutionalists’
1904-05 Russo-Japanese War
1905-07  First Russian Revolution
1905 9 January: Bloody Sunday
May: first Soviet of Workers’ Deputies set up in Ivanovo-Voznesensk to co-ordinate strike action in the town
October: general strike led by St Petersburg Soviet
17 October: Tsar’s October Manifesto grants basic civil and political rights and elected legislative assembly
October: Left-wing liberals set up the Party of Constitutional Democrats (Kadets)
December: right-wing liberals set up their party, ‘Union of 17 October’

Moscow workers’ uprising suppressed

1906-11 Peter Stolypin chairman of Council of Ministers
1906 April: constitutional experiment begins with elections to First Duma
November: Stolypin introduces land reform by decree
1911  Assassination of Stolypin
1912 Shooting of striking miners at Lena goldfields in Eastern Siberia
1914 July: Russia enters the First World War
Russia’s capital renamed Petrograd
1915 Nicholas II assumes command of the army
‘Progressive Bloc’ of liberal and moderate conservative groupings is formed in Fourth Duma
1916 Assassination of G. Rasputin
1917 February Revolution leads to abdication of Nicholas II and collapse of autocracy. Provisional Government assumes official power in Russia. Simultaneously, Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies is established by socialist intellectuals
April: Lenin arrives to Russia from exile and unveils his plan of proletarian revolution in April Theses
June: first All-Russian Congress of Soviets in Petrograd
4 July: unsuccessful Bolshevik uprising in Petrograd. Provisional Government brings charges against Lenin and other Bolshevik leaders
August: Gen. Kornilov launches an unsuccessful military coup
September: Bolsheviks gain majority on Petrograd Soviet
25-26 October: Bolshevik forces stage a coup in Petrograd and arrest ministers of Provisional Government
26 October: Second all-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies approves formation of a Bolshevik government
1918 March: Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) renamed Russian Communist Party
July: Nicholas II with other members of royal family murdered at Ekaterinburg in Urals on Bolshevik orders
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Tsarist Russia

Pre-Petrine Russia
Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
Alexander I
Nicholas I
Alexander II
The Revolutionary Movement
Appearance of Marxism
The Last Romanovs
The Birth of Bolshevism
The Revolution of 1905-7
Between Revolutions
The Revolutions of 1917
Interpretations of 1917
The End of an Empire
Tables and Statistics

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Russia from A to Z

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