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Social Structure

Social Structure of the Russian Empire in 1897 as Defined by Official Categories
Official categories %
Hereditary nobles 1.0
Nonhereditary nobles and nonnoble bureaucrats 0.5
Christian priests 0.5
Hereditary and nonhereditary honoured citizens 0.3
Merchants 0.2
Petty commercial classes 10.6
Peasants in rural areas 70.1
Peasants in towns 7.0
Cossacks 2.3
Settlers 6.6
Foreigners 0.5
Others (unclassifiable) 0.4

 Social Structure of the Russian Empire in 1897 as Defined by Class

Classes of population %

Ruling class (tsar, court, and government)


Upper class (nobility, higher clergy, military officers)


Commercial class (merchants, factory owners, financiers)


Working class (factory workers and small traders)


Peasants (land dwellers and agricultural workers)

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